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National Examination? or National Excruciation?

National Examination? or National Excruciation?

By: Nadiyah

Last week, some 2.5 million senior high school students across the country have taken National Examination (UN). This week, around 4 million junior high school students take the UN. Despite all the protests made by education practitioners, teachers, students, and education activists, our Education and Culture Minister Muhammad Nuh stayed over-consistent with what he had decided. In 2008 the ministry of Education
had been challenged by some group of teachers in High Court to abolish National Examination. However, the verdict of the High Court ruled in favor of Education and Culture ministry but the government should improve the education standard and facilities in school all over Indonesia. This decision does not satisfy the majority of the society who are still against the existence of National Examination. This situation creates public debates about whether or not we should use National Examination as a finaltestfor students in elementary, junior, and also senior high school. Personally we think National Examination should be abolishedbecauseit is not inline with the nature of
evaluation, it shifts the goal of education, and it systhematically triggers cheating.

The proposition of UN claims that National Examination  is important for standarization. However, if we analize it deeper we will know that this assertion is false. The first analisis is that, standarization can only be achieved if the other variable is the same. However, in UN  the other variable such as the availability of the facilities, the depth of the explanation of the teacher, and the teaching system is different. So the idea of standarization cannot be achieved through National Examination. The second analysis is that, standarization it self bassically is not important, because we have to give chance to every school to develop by themselve using their own standart. The third analysis is that, even if we want to have the same standart of education for every region in Indonesia, what needs to be standardized is not the outcome of the education process but rather the facility which supports the learning and teaching process. If we want all school in Indonesia to have good quality we need to make sure that the availability of textbook, teachers, and learning materials in each and every school in Indonesia is good, not by forcing them to have the same quality of the outcome.

National examination is not inline with the nature of evaluation. Ideally, evaluation is a set of test to check whether or not the education process that has been going on for a certain period of time works. To make sure that the evaluation can completely evaluate the education process, we have to make sure that the material in the evaluation tests completely match with the material given in education process. The reason is that, eventhough general the curriculum is the same, how deep a teacher explain materials in the learning process  might be different from one school to another. The only way we can achieve this situation is when the one who make the evaluation tests is the teacher herself. However, we can see in UN, the one who make the evaluation questions is a team consisting groups of teachers and lecturers who might know the general material which should be tested but exactly do not know the real process of teaching-and learning in each and every school which implement UN. When we force this situation to continue, the result of UN will not be able to picture the real achievement of the students. A certain school needs more difficult questions to picture the achievement of their students, and some other school might need easier questions to know their students’ achievement.

National examination shifts the real goal of education.  The biggest goal of all education process basically not to make students being able to answer questions in tests, but instead to cultivate critical thinking. The abililty to have critical thinking is what distinguises people who are educated and those who do not have chance to taste the education.  We can take an example how in the process of teaching biology, after the teacher explain about the characteristics of vertebre,
the students are asked to indentify which animals belong to vertebre. This system shows that not only students have to be able to re-explain the characteristics of vertebre, they are also expected to be able to critically think and indentify which animals have the same characteristics as what the teacher explained. However, with the existance of UN this holy goal of education is shifted to be something more shallow, the ability to answer the questions correctly. The positioin of UN which is seen as the biggest factor to identify whether or not the educatioin process has been successful automatically makes us place it as the goal of education. However, UN only measures whether or not we can answer the questions correctly regardless our ability to think critically. So it creates
paradigm in our mind that the goal of education is the ability to answers the question in the final examination.  As a result, the goal of education is no longer to create critical thinking but rather to have the ability to memorize theories and formulas to answer the question. This will lead to a degradation of the value of education in general.

Not only that National Examination creates problem in the phylosophical level, it is also problematic in the practical level, because National Examination systhematically triggers cheating. We already know that since it is first implemented in 2008 the problem of cheating always
appear in UN. To overcome this problem the government has implemented several points of prevention in the form of stricker questionsheet distribution, cooperating with the National Police Department (POLRI), and even to make 5 different set of questions  which are distributed randomly in the class to prevent cheating. However, all of these mechanisms proven to be useless in solving the problem of cheating in UN.  We can see in UN of senior high school students this year, more than a thousand of cheating had been reported to the National Committee of National Examination Watch. If we analyze this problem deeper we will find that eventhough we have more strict regulation the cheating would still be there because UN systhematically triggers cheating. The reason is that, it creates fear massively in the mindset of the students. Because of this fear, the students are not able to think logically so they want to find the fastest and the easiest way to find the answer which in this case through cheating. Not only that it creates fear, it also puts a burden on the teachers, school, and also region. The reason is that, after the UN’s result is announced there will be comparison of the achievement between regions. Every leader of the region wants the UN result in their area to be the best to prove that they are good leaders, so they put more pressure on school. Every school also wants to achieve best in their area, so they put more burden on the teachers. Because of this chain of burden, there is a tendency of the teacher to help the students in doing the tests so the cheating is done not only by the students but also the teachers.

From all of these explanation we can conclude that we should abolish national examination, because it is not inline with the nature of evaluation, it shifts the goal of education, and it systhematically triggers cheating

 
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Posted by on June 11, 2012 in Nadiyah

 

Teacher Certification

Teacher Certification

(Argumentative Writing)

By: Nadiyah

For the past few years, there has been a public debate about whether or not we should give teacher certification. We personally believe that we should give certification to teachers, because it determines the eligibility of teachers to carry on their duty, it enhances the dignity of teacher as a professional job, and it also increases the welfare of the teachers.

People who oppose teacher certification argue that this
mechanism is only a waste of money. However, we say exactly the opposite. The money used for teacher certification is actually not that much. It is only 20 trillion rupiahs. If we compare with the amount of money used for
rebuilding the House of Representative buildings which is 22 trillion rupiahs, we can see that it is still below that number. We also have to remember that this amount of money is used to alleviate the living standards of thousands of people who had educated our young generation and ensure the development of our nation. For this holy goal we say teacher certification is not a waste of money, but it is a very efficient way to spend our money compared to using it to build a certain building which will be used only by a few hundred people.

Teacher certification can determine the eligibility of teachers to carry on their duty as an educator. Before we have the system of teacher certification, we could not measure whether or not a teacher is still eligible to be a facilitator for their students in the class. In other words there is no point of control to make sure that teachers can still keep up with the development of education system. We can take an example how a certain group of teachers have their own principals and belief in teaching using a hard approach by shouting to their students or ask them to stand still for hours. These teaching mechanisms are no longer suitable for education system nowadays. However, because there was no point of control, we could not prevent this from happening. More importantly, this situation is also harmful for the teachers themselves, because people might judge them as cruel teachers, while basically they were just lack of information of the new teaching approaches. With teacher certification, teachers are encouraged to follow the development of education systems and teaching approaches by joining trainings and seminars which are held by the Ministry of Education. By this system we can make sure that all of the
teachers in Indonesia can carry out their duty as an agent of learning and develop Indonesia to be a better nation.

People who opposed teacher certification also argue that it
leaves the room for cheating, especially with the system of portfolio. However, if we analyze this statement deeper, we will find that it is basically false. The first analysis is that, the point of control that we have nowadays is basically enough. The education ministry can do the mechanism of check-and-balance if they accuse some certificates to be the fake ones. They can check the organizer of the event mentioned in the certificate, if it is proven to be fake then the teacher is liable to be penalized. The second analysis is that, we already have the law which dealswith the case of counterfeiting which says that if we are proven to fake legal documents we will be criminalized and put to jail. This law is enough to create threat for those who might consider faking their certificates so it will prevent them from doing this criminal action. The third analysis is that, even if our mechanism now to prevent the cheating is still not enough it is not a valid reason for us to abolish teacher certification. If the problem is about cheating, what we need to do is increasing the point of control so the cheating will not happen again in the future.

Teacher certification can enhance the dignity of teacher as a professional job. Before we have teacher certification, the profession of teacher is seen as something which is not as elegant as being a doctor or a lawyer. Sometimes, teaching also seen as something which is less professional which means that we do not need a certain criteria to be a teacher, we just need to be able to stand in front of the class and explain the book to the students. This can of paradigm is exactly something which needs to be changed through teacher certification. With teacher certification, government admits that teaching is a professional job which only can be done by someone who has a specification and specific skill. This specification is achieved through minimum requirement of having S1 degree, one of the requirements of getting teacher certification. Thespecial skills which need to be owned by a teacher also specified in teacher certification requirement, which is the professional skill, social skill, interpersonal skill, and also communication skill. By implementing this program, the way people perceive the profession of teacher is also changed from something which is seen less professional to be something which has the same requirement of professionalism as doctor and lawyer. This implementation will also affect the way teachers see their ownprofession. It will encourage them to be more proud of being a teacher, thus it will encourage them to work harder as a professional.

People who oppose teacher certification also argue that teacher certification is not fair for old teachers. We say exactly the opposite. With the existence of teacher certification, we can make sure whether the old teachers who had been educated to educate our previous generation had enough knowledge about the current mechanism. If they already have the knowledge, then they can get certification. However, if they are proven not to have enough knowledge the government can help them to get this knowledge through seminars and trainings. If we do not have teacher certification we would never know whether or not these old teachers need the help from the government. More importantly, by having this certification we can encourage the old teachers to be more motivated in order to compete with the young teachers.

Teacher certification can increase the welfare of the teachers. We have to admit that Indonesia has not been so successful in keeping the welfare of the teachers. We can take an example how many teachers especially those in remote area still have to work a second job as farmer, bus driver, or sailor just becausewhat they earn from becoming teachers is not enough to support their living. This tragic situation is solved by teacher certification, because the certified teacher will get more incentives and increasing of salary. The increasing salary and incentive which can reach around 60% from their normal salary will be effective to increase the welfare of teachers in Indonesia. The goal is that, after they get this increasing salary these teachers do not need to work a second job so they can focus more on developing their teaching system, material, and improving their quality as teachers. This system has proven successful in increasing the welfare of the teachers, proven by data from a survey done the Ministry of Education. 83% of all teachers who have received teacher certificate and increasing of salary said that it is effective to increase their welfare and their quality of life.

To sum up, we should give certification to teachers because it determines the eligibility of teachers to carry on their duty, it enhances the dignity of teacher as a professional job, and it also increases the welfare of the teachers. While the arguments from the opposition of teacher certification who say it is a waste of money, it creates the possibility of cheating, and it is discriminative towards old teachers are proven to be wrong.

 
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Posted by on June 8, 2012 in Nadiyah

 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Facebook

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Facebook

(Discussion Essay)

 By: Nadiyah

Meti Rahmawati

Ratna Komala

Shanti Putri

Social networking has been a common use on the Internet in today’s generation. One of these popular social networking sites is Facebook which has over millions of members connecting with friends every day. The popularity of Facebookers in Indonesia has been increasing so much that soon it will reach 43 billion members in 2012 (kompas.com on first February 2012). However, in society there are pro and contra viewpoints concerning using Facebook in the daily life. Based on this issue we would explain more about the advantages and disadvantages that people might get from Facebook so that you could decide whether or not you want to use Facebook. We have two common advantages that we might get from Facebook such as easy communication and effective advertisement while about the disadvantages we have decreasing the direct communication and wasting your time.

First of all, Facebook has two major advantages. The first advantage of using Facebook is that it eases our communication. For example when people want to communicate with their friends or family abroad, they no longer need to post mails which need a lot of time and money. A letter to Timor Leste for instance costs us 1 billions rupee. Not only that, the letter takes 10 years to reach the address. Facebook  provides several features such as chatting, personal messaging, and photo sharing which enable us to share information with other Facebookers easily. Just by clicking on the ‘post’ button in Facebook, we can send pictures, videos, or simple sweet greetings for the people we love who are miles away from us. With the existence of Facebook, distance no longer becomes obstacle for our communication. Facebook seems like constricting the globe. Another advantage of using Facebook is that it becomes an efficient place to advertise our products. Efficient here are in the form of money, time and energy. For example, we can use Facebook to advertise our products or events for free, while in the other media like newspaper, radio, or television, we have to pay a certain amount of money. Even, if we want to advertise our product in Jawa Post, we have to pay Rp.200.000 for only a two-line advertisement. Furthermore, we do not need much time to spread out our advertisements. We just need to sit in the front of the computer, upload the advertisement and share it via Facebook by only clicking “share” button. In a few minutes, our product will spread all over the world and as a consequence, everyone will know and read our advertisement in their Facebook accounts. Moreover, by using Facebook, we should not do the conventional way of spreading the advertisement where we have to stand for a long time on the crowd giving the advertisements to the consumers. Instead of doing that tiring way, we only need to sit, get connected to Facebook and share the advertisements. Therefore, we definitely save a vast amount of energy.

 

Besides the advantages as described in the previous section, Facebook also has two common disadvantages. The first disadvantage of using Facebook is that it decreases the direct communication between yourselves and other people. Communicating by using Facebook, it means that you do not do face to face communication with your friends and only using computers to do it. Indeed by using Facebook, you can exchange information and make conversation with your friends. However, you will lose one essential aspect of communication which is non-verbal communication. It includes eye contact, gesture, voice tone and touching. Actually, non-verbal communication is so important because it will help to convey the emotion and feelings strongly. To illustrate, when your friend is sad and crying, you can calm her/him down by patting her/his shoulder. If you use Facebook to communicate, you cannot show your support and sympathy straightforwardly. The second disadvantage of using Facebook is that it wastes our time.  Once people connect with their friends on Facebook, they will tend to chat with them for hours and be curious to know what they are doing and feeling by looking at their friends’ constantly updated status. Moreover, Facebook also provides many kinds of online games such as Poker and Cityville. Usually people prefer to play online games on Facebook while waiting for the newest status of friends. When they get new notifications, they will minimize the game, look at the new notification, and then continue the game. It happens on and on. As the result, people will not realize that they have spent many hours only for connecting to Facebook. Actually, with the amount of time, you can do your duty or other things which are useful such as doing homework or reading books.

To sum up, there are two points of view about Facebook: agree and disagree. The people who agree with the using of Facebook find it useful to ease communication and provide effective advertisements. However, people who disagree with the using of Facebook think that it is decreasing direct communication and wasting time activity.  Therefore, it is your choice to agree or disagree of the using of Facebook.

 

 
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Posted by on May 25, 2012 in Group Task

 

TEACHER CERTIFICATION: IS IT ABOUT THE MONEY OR THE QUALITY?

TEACHER CERTIFICATION:

IS IT ABOUT THE MONEY OR THE QUALITY?

(Argumentative Essay)

By: Meti Rahmawati

            It is an undeniable fact that teachers’ salary is likely not enough to fulfil family needs. It is proven by the fact that there are many teachers do part time job such as become contraction workers, pedicab drivers or even dustmen. They do the job after teaching at schools. It is merely for the sake of additional money. However, the condition nowadays is getting better since the government released the regulation of teacher certification on 2006, based on Regulation Number 14/2005 about teachers and lecturers and Regulation of the Minister of National Education number 18/2007 about teacher certification. The teachers will get allowance each year as much as their primary salaries. Today, many teachers have prosperous lives because of the allowance. As Ministries of Education and Culture explains that teacher certification has three aims: to determine the eligibility of teachers in carrying out their duties as professional educators, increase the quality of the teachers, and increase the prosperity of the teachers. Unfortunately, there are also some negative aspects of the certification implementation. Many people begin to argue and disagree with teacher certification. There are three reasons of refusing teachers certification: there are many teachers compete to get certification only for the sake of money; the certification process is too tiring and forcing; the teachers are obliged to teach for 24 hours in a week after getting the certification. Therefore, I believe  that teacher certification is not effective, thereforee,e etehe government should erase it.

The first reason to refuse teacher certification is that there are many teachers compete to get certification only for the sake of money. The allowance given to the certified teachers attract many teachers to join certification program merely to get the money, not for the betterment of their teaching methods. It can be seen from two points of view. Firstly, many teachers are willing to do everything for just getting a chance to join certification such as buying the master degree certificate without attending the college to fulfil certification requirement. They do not care though they get no additional knowledge from the college. The most important thing is the graduation certificate, which can be used to join the certification. Many of them are willing to pay until Rp 12 million just to get it. They tend to think that after getting the certification, they will get more money than what they have spent. It proves that many teachers are eager to join the certification and try to do anything just for the sake of the allowance, not to increase their quality. Secondly, we can see the quality of the teachers who had passed the certification. Many of them do not improve their teaching methods and also their administration stuff. There are many certified teachers who still lazy to make lesson plan or RPP (Rencana Pelaksanaan Penbelajaran) , come late, come to class without preparation, do not master the materials that will be explained, or even leave the class with no important excuse. For example, according to the research data of Dinas Pendidikan Muaro Jambi towards 124 teachers who get the certification, 90% of them do not have complete administration such as Standar Isi, Standar Kompetensi Lulusan, Standar  Proses, and Standar Penilaian. Moreover their lesson plans are copied from BNSP (Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan.). It clearly shows us that the certification cannot guarantee the increasing quality of the teachers because in fact, many of them only want to get the allowance. Meanwhile, the government says that certification will increase the prosperity of the teachers. Indeed the allowance they get will increase the prosperity, but the way to get it is a kind of torturing. What does the allowance mean if the teachers get sick or even die? Especially for the older teachers whose ages are more than 50 years old, the process of getting the allowance is too tiring. If the government really want to give the prosperity, why the government not just simply give remuneration or the allowance just like what police, army and district government officers (Pemda) get. Police, army, and Pemda officers get the allowance without any test or qualification. The government says that it is a kind of appreciation for them to increase their performance. This is not fair if they get the allowance easily while teachers who are also the government officers must struggle hard through many complicated process just to get the same allowance. If the government really wants to increase teacher’s prosperity, the government should give the remuneration instead of the certification.

The second reason to refuse teachers certification is that the certification process is so tiring and forcing. The teachers who want to get the certification should accomplish complicated requirement and many tiring process. However, many teachers are always willing to do that because they need the money, not because of the increasing quality of the teachers. Firstly, all teachers should join UKA (Ujian Kompetensi Awal). Here the teachers are given tests about pedagogy competence and professional competence. There are 60 multiple-choice questions and must be done in 120 minutes. The test makes the teachers to prepare everything, including study the materials again to pass the test. This is not effective because the teachers should also prepare their lesson plan and materials to teach their students which has taken much time and tiring. Eventually, UKA seems just like a formality and do not truly effective to screen the teachers who have competence to get certification. Next, when the teachers have successfully passed UKA, they should join PLPG (Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru). It is a kind of training, in which the teachers are given pedagogic, teaching methods and also administration material. According to the chief of Badan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pendidikan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan (BPSDMP-PMP) of the Minister of National Education, Syawal Gultom, PLPG this year will be conducted for 9 days. There are many tasks that must be accomplished by the teachers on the process of PLPG such as making lesson plan (Rencana Pembelajaran) or teaching media. Moreover, the teacher should be ready at 05.30 a.m. every morning, go to the place of PLPG, get endless materials and explanation, then finally go back to the hotels at 18.00 pm with carrying abundant homework. It is surely tiring day to get through. If the teachers’ physical conditions are not fit, it may cause severe impact such as get sick, fall unconscious, or even causes death. On the other hand, the government may argue that certification is meant to determine the eligibility of teachers in carrying out their duties as professional educators. This is so ironic that the government try to determine teachers’ quality only from the PLPG process. They judge whether a teacher has a good quality or not by only using PLPL process which is only ten days. That is so It should be from their daily performance on the schools. As an illustration, for the teachers who have become teachers for more than 20 years, their performance will be determine only from that ten days. The government do not case whether or not they have done their job well for the 20 years, the most important thing is they can show good performance on that ten days. What about if the good and qualified teachers are sick or not fit at that time until they can give the best performance? That is so ironic, when you are judge to be low quality teachers because you are sick on the PLPG and cannot give your best performance in certification, while for these 20 years you have done your best and become professional teachers. On the other hand, there are many lazy teachers who never make lesson plan can pass PLPG and get the certification as a professional teacher. They pay other people to do their tasks and make the lesson plan for them. Then, they just sit on class, do not listen to the explanation of the materials, and busily talk with their friends. When the test comes, they will ask the answer to their friends. This illustration shows us how certification is not reliable to determine the eligibility of a teacher.

The third reason to refuse teachers certification is that the teachers are obliged to teach for 24 hours in a week after getting the certification. According to Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB) Lima Menteri No.5/2011 about Teacher Retribution, teachers who get certification should teach 24 hours a week. When their schools cannot accommodate all of the teachers to teach for 24 hours a week, the teachers should find other schools to fulfil the quota. In fact, this regulation causes other crucial problems. Firstly, many teachers, especially honorary teachers and young teachers, lose their teaching hours because it is given to the senior teachers or the teachers who have gotten certification. It happens because of the imbalance number of students and the teachers. They have to be patient and sincerely give their teaching hours to the teachers who get the certification. However, usually it is still just not enough to accommodate all certified teachers. As the result, the certified teachers who do not get teaching hours in their schools should go to the other schools. In fact, it is not that simple because the teachers on the destination schools also need additional teaching hours. Eventually, they should go to the schools on the suburbs or villages, which are so far away from their place. It spends a lot of time, energy, and also transportation cost. Secondly, it reduces the chance of new teachers to teach on the schools. As we know that each year, there are thousands graduates of education faculties all around Indonesia. When they want to apply to the schools, it seems so difficult for them to be accepted because the teachers on that school  are also confused of looking additional teaching hours. Eventually, the fresh graduates have no chance to teach and become unemployment. Thirdly, there are many manipulations of data. Manipulation of data here means that many teachers manipulate the data that they have accomplished their obligation of teaching for 24 hours in a week. In fact, they do not do it and just manipulate it. Ironically, the headmasters and other teachers who should be the assessors are also involved in this manipulation. The headmasters know it but do no nothing, sometimes for the sake of money given by the teachers. While the others teachers also do nothing because actually most of them also do the same.It is a kind of a public secret among the teachers. However, the government may say that it will increase the quality of the teachers. This is totally unreliable reason. The government wants to increase the quality of teachers by using only ten-days training. That is ridiculous. At the end, what the teachers know and remember is the allowance they get, not the knowledge from the training. It is simply because the system of the training itself is bad and failed to increase the quality of teachers. Firstly, it is just conducted for ten days, which is surely not enough to increase the quality of teachers. What can the teachers get from the ten-days training? Maybe they get the materials there, but when they have done the training, they will simply forget everything. It is because in ten days, they are force to remember and understand many materials. As an analogy, when a student try to memorize many materials in one night for the test tomorrow, maybe she or he will remember some of the materials. However, after the test has done, they will simply forget it because actually the materials go into her/his short memory. It is just like what happens to the teachers. Secondly, we know that the requirement of the teacher who do not have master degree must be on age of 50 or more. How can the government make them read and understand the abundant materials and compete with the young people? Many of them have been senile and forgetful. Moreover, many of them are sick when they join the tiring training on PLPG.  They are too old to do the useless tiring training.  Certification cannot increase the quality of a teacher when the teacher condition itself makes it impossible to reach the goal. This system is unreliable. Thirdly, there are many manipulations on the process of PLPG itself. How can the government expects to increase the quality of teachers when there are a lot of manipulation on the training itself. For example, many teachers are too tired or maybe lazy to accomplish the task given from PLPG. They can simply pay other people do it for them. How can the quality increase when their tasks are accomplished by other people? Therefore, PLPG is proven to be failed to increase the quality of the teachers.

To sum up, there are three reasons to reject teacher certification: there are many teachers compete to get certification only for the sake of money; the certification process is too tiring and forcing; the teachers are obliged to teach for 24 hours in a week after getting the certification. If the government want to increase the quality of teachers, it will be better if the government do a kind of regular training for teachers. It will be more effective. If the government really want to increase the prosperity of teachers, it will be better if the government give a kind of remuneration like what police and army get. Therefore, the government should abolish teacher certification.

 
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Posted by on May 25, 2012 in Meti Rahmawati

 

Leaf Cancer

Leaf Cancer

(Persuasive Essay)

By: Meti Rahmawati

            Almost everyone knows about cancer, a very serious disease that attacks human body and causes body cells grow abnormally. However, not many people know that cancer may also attack plants. One kind of cancer on plants is leaf cancer. Leaf cancer is a disease affecting the plants which causes the damage of the leaves and make it drop prematurely. Severely infected trees become weak, unproductive and finally die. The cause of this infection is bacterium. Different kinds of plants are infected by different kinds of bacterium, e.g., cacao plant is infected by Phytophthora Palmivora (Butl) while for citrus plant is infected by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri. Even though the bacterium caused leaf cancer on each kind of plants is different, the aspects of the disease infections are the same. We should know three aspects in order to detect the infection and prevent the spread of this deadly plant disease. Generally, there are three important aspects of leaf cancer: the symptoms or sign, way of infection and spreading, and the management of the infected plants.

The first important aspect of leaf cancer we should know is the symptoms or signs of the plants infected. It is important to know the symptoms of leaf cancer in order to identify the infection before it is too late and it has been spread out. A typical symptom the infection is typically consist of small, round, blister-like formations called lesions. This symptom can be observed by the naked eye under field or lab conditions. Lesions appear within five to seven days under warm, moist conditions between 28ºC and 30ºC. According to the age, there are three levels of the lesions: new, young, old. Firstly, the new lesions which are just appeared as slightly raised, white or creamy coloured, tiny spots. They are raised on both sides of the leaf. Secondly, the lesions enlarge, becoming spongy and turn tan to brown. It is surrounded by an oily, water-soaked margin with a yellow ring or halo effect around it. Finally, the bacteria cause necrotic (dead cells) lesions on leaf. Sometimes, the lesions fall out and leaving holes which is known as the “shot hole effect.” After that, the leaf become dry and drop prematurely. This disease spread fast. If we just ignore it, the whole leaves will fall out. Therefore, it is very important to notice the symptoms since the very first time.

The second important aspect of leaf cancer we should know is the way of infection and spreading. It is important to know the way of infection and spreading of leaf cancer in order to break off the life circle of the bacteria and prevent the infection spreading. Firstly, there are two kinds of infection: stomata infection and direct infection. On the stomatal infection, bacteria enter leaf’s tissue through the stomata pores (pores in the surface of leaves through which air normally enters the leaves) while the direct infection happens through wounds on the plants. After the bacteria get into the leaf’s tissue, it multiplies rapidly and causes the damage. When moisture on the lesions, the bacteria is ooze out and spread out to infect new growth with the help of some agents. Secondly, there are three agents of infection spreading wind-driven rain, insects, and human. The first agent of infection spreading is the wind-driven rain. It enables the infection spread rapidly because the presence of free water on the plant surface helps the release of bacteria from the lesions. When the water containing the bacteria drops on the other leaves, the bacteria will get into and infect the leaves. The disease may reach epidemic proportions with wind speed above 8 m/s. The bacterium spread by wind and rain cover short distances i.e. within trees or neighbouring trees. The second agent of infection spreading is insects. One of the insects is the leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella) which causes the damage of the leaf leaving the wound open. The infection occurs through the wound. The third agent of infection spreading is human. Contaminated clothing, tools, packing boxes, and other items associated with harvesting and postharvest handlings of fruit are potential sources of infection. Therefore, if we have notice the symptoms of leaf cancer on our plants, it is important to spray disinfectant to the tools and clothes we use to kill the bacteria.

The third important aspect of leaf cancer we should know is the management of the infected plants. It is important to know how to manage the infected plants to destroy the disease thoroughly. There are two ways of managing the infected plants: non-chemical control and chemical control. First, non-chemical control is done by eradication system. Once positively infected, diseased trees must be uprooted, place in pile, and burned. Disease-free trees are destroyed as well to prevent the spreading of infection since it is highly contagious. The trees must be burned because the bacteria can survive for years in infected plant tissues that have been kept dry and free of soil. Second, chemical control is done by spraying containing copper (bordeaux mixture, copper hydroxide, basic copper chloride, copper oxychloride, and tribasic copper sulfate). It is the most effective bacterial sprays for protecting leaves and the whole trees. These materials can reduce the incidence of disease, but they will not help severe infections.

All in all, leaf cancer caused by bacterium is very serious plant diseases which highly contagius and rapidly spread out. It is important to know three major aspect of leaf cancer in order to prevent vast expand infection. The three important aspects we should know are the symptoms or sign, way of infection and spreading, and the management of the infected plants. Therefore, know the symptoms and keep leaf cancer away from your plants!

 

 

 
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Posted by on May 25, 2012 in Meti Rahmawati

 

The Violence towards Demonstrators in Sape, Bima

The Violence towards Demonstrators in Sape, Bima

(Persuasive Essay)

By: Meti Rahmawati

            Social violence seems to be common cases in our society today. It can happen to everyone and done by someone who is not likely to do it such as police officers. Police who should protect the society and keep security and stability, often become the suspects of some violence cases, especially the violence towards demonstrators. For example, violence cases in Freeport, Mesuji, and Lampung showed the repressive action of police officers to the demonstrators. The current case occurs in Sape harbor, Bima district, West Nusa Tenggara on last Saturday, December 24th. Demonstrators and police officers clashed, leaving three people killed and 30 others injured. The demonstrators were against the mining activity done by PT Sumber Mineral Nusantara. They protest the damage of the environment caused by the mining activities. Police, who are actually the guidance of society, have done harassments to the society itself. The violence is obviously can be seen on the Bima case. Generally, the violence done by the police towards the demonstrators is caused by three major factors; the violation of facing public demonstration procedure, the arrogant behaviour of the police officers, and the bias position of the police.

The first factor of the violence done by the police towards the demonstrators in Bima is that the police violate the procedure of facing public demonstration. According to National Police Regulation Number 1/2009 article 5 paragraph 1, in facing a protest rally, police must take five steps first before deciding to use their gun. The five steps were striving to avoid a clash, directly ordering the protesters to calm down, using their bare hands, using pepper spray or tear gas to disperse the crowd, and then using the gun. There is a clear regulation for police to conquer a demonstration and they know it very well. However, while facing the demonstrators in Bima, the police did not obey the procedure. They were straight using gun to face the demonstrators and caused many victims. Mochtar Muslimin, one of the demonstrators said that at 08.00 pm, suddenly the police used gunfire to repel the protesters without any warning. Even they kept shooting to the direction of the people who had put their hands up and surrendered. Actually, according to the regulation, the police should give warning by shooting up to the air. In this case, the police shot straight to the demonstrators without any warning. They also had overlapped the previous steps of controlling a demonstration and directly used gunfire. The violence and harassment should not have happened if the police officers did the right procedure to calm down the demonstrators. There were no people should die if the police did not use the gunfire and  pointed it straight to the demonstrators.

The second factor of the violence done by the police towards the demonstrators in Bima is that the police tend to behave arrogantly in facing the demonstrators. Arrogant here means the police act in a rude way. This arrogancy acts done because of the they think that they have the authority. They are There is a tendency nowadays that police and demonstrators always have physical contacts which ends up with some victims. The police tend to think that they have the authority to do the harassment such as kicking, hitting, or even shooting for the sake of conducive situation. In Bima case, even after the demonstrators surrender, the police keep hitting and kicking them fiercely. For instance, Ridha Saleh ,the deputy of Komnas HAM, said that one of the demonstrators named Hasanuddin was hit by the police on his left eyebrow using the gun until it ripped and needed to be stitched. Furthermore, the police dragged him until his back injured. Then, when he was uncounsious, his right tight was shot in short distace. It is one of the evidence of police brutality. They tend to think that they have the authority to do the violence for conducive situation as the excuse.

To sum up, violence can be done by anyone even by the police whose job is make sure people to obey the law and do not do violence to other people. The case in Sape, Bima has proved that it is truly happened in the real world. The violence done by the police towards the demonstrators is caused by two factors; the police do not follow the procedure of facing a demonstration and because they tend to behave arrogantly.

 
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Posted by on May 25, 2012 in Meti Rahmawati

 

JOIN GANESHA OPERATION AND GET THE BEST ACHIEVEMENT

JOIN GANESHA OPERATION AND GET THE BEST ACHIEVEMENT

(Persuasive Essay)

By: Meti Rahmawati

There are many Bimbingan Belajar (henceforth Bimbel) institutions which offer learning guidance for students. They promise the students will get academic achievements at school, for example getting good score in their report or passing examinations such as UN or SNMPTN. In fact, many of those Bimbel institutions could not prove the significance of the learning guidance on the students’ achievements at school. Some students still get bad scores on their report s and the other fail to pass UN or SNMPTN. Furthermore, the Bimbel institutions also offer the best facilities such as comfortable classrooms with air-conditioner to support the studying processes. However, sometimes the facilities offered are actually only enticement in order to make the students join the Bimbel. What we get in reality is a small crowded classroom with broken air-conditioner. Moreover, another problem is that many students’ parents worry about the expensive tuition fee of joining a Bimbel. They have to pay a lot of money while they do not see the effect of the learning guidance on their children achievements at schools. Those problems make many people wonder to choose the right learning guidance institution which has good quality with cheap tuition fee. Therefore, Ganesha Operation (GO) gives you the best solution to solve the problems. GO is the best learning guidance institution to join because of its excellent quality of teaching and learning process, its great facilities, and its cheep tuition fee.

The first reason that makes GO the best learning guidance institution to join is its excellent quality of teaching and learning process. Actually, GO’s excellent quality is supported by three factors: the qualified teachers, the systematic and simple materials, and excellent teaching methodology. Firstly, the teachers are the qualified alumni from qualified universities and carefully selected through many kinds of tests such as written test and interview. If they fulfil the requirements, they will join certain trainings from GO in order to ensure the quality of the teachers so they will give you the best quality services. Secondly, simple course materials enable the students to understand all materials easily. It is simple because it is focusing to the examination problems typically found on the examinations. We make it as simple as possible by just including the most important part of the materials so it is easy to learn. We will not burden Thirdly, we provide excellent teaching methodology by giving brilliant formulas to solve the problems on examination quickly and accurately. As our slogan “The King of the Fastest Solution,” we always try to discover the simplest and quickest solution. Some of the quick solutions methods we use are acronyms, mind mapping and shortened formulas. For example, we can use acronyms to easily remember the meiosis phase of cell division in Biology, leptoten, zygothen, pakiten, diploten, and diakinesis phases, by only remember “LeZy Pak DiDik”. It is actually the acronyms of those phases. The excellent quality of GO’s learning guidance has been proven by the achievement gotten by its students. For example, on UN 2011, GO’s students got the first, second and third best scores in Indonesia. Moreover, on SNMPTN 2011, more than 15.000 Go’s students successfully enter several universities all around Indonesia, and 46% of them enter favourite universities such as UI, ITB, UNAIR, UGM, UNDIP, UM or UB. This is the real proof that GO’s excellent quality of teaching and learning process enables the students to get the achievements.

The second reason that makes GO the best learning guidance institution is its great facilities. We give you the best facilities to support learning and teaching process in GO without paying additional payment. We have four main facilities for you. They are comfortable classrooms, 5 different kinds of books, try out tests, and consultation sessions. First, we provide comfortable classrooms for you to study. It has Air-Conditioner installed. The students can get the fresh and cool air that makes them study comfortably. Moreover, we limit the maximum capacity of each classroom become 20 students per class to avoid crowded and ineffective studying process. Then, we will give you four different kinds of books: Konsep Dasar, Rumus the King, Buku Kumpulan Soal and Buku SMS(Strategi Menuju Sukses). Konsep Dasar contains the philosophy of each subject while Rumus the King is the collection of the smart solutions to solve the problems quickly. Buku Kumpulan Soal provides prediction exercises of the test and Buku SMS(Strategi Menuju Sukses) gives you information about universities and its passing grade. Next, we held try out at least twice a month and it becomes more intensive when it comes closer to the examinations. After the try out, we will discuss about it and solve the difficult problems together. We send a report card consisting try out result to the in hope that parents will motivate their children to study harder. The last but not the least is the consultation session for the students. Out of the class, they can consult the teachers about their difficulties of understanding materials. It surely will help the students to understand all of the materials, especially for students who cannot catch materials quickly. At school, you do not have much time to discuss with your teacher, but in here we will always be ready to help you. Moreover, students can also consult about the right schools or universities to choose. Here the students will get many information and advice about choosing the best schools or universities according to their capability.

The third reason that makes GO becomes the best learning guidance institution is its cheep tuition fee. GO’s tuition fee is considered as the cheep one because it is only in the range of Rp1.350.000 to Rp1.600.000. By paying the tuition fee, you can get the best quality learning guidance and get many facilities as mentioned on the second paragraph. Furthermore, we also give you payment relief in the form of paying in instalment and great discounts. First, if you think that the tuition fee is expensive enough for you to pay in cash, you have the choice to pay it in instalment. We offer you 4 times instalment payment without deciding the date and the amount of the payment. Second, in order to make the tuition fee even more affordable for all societies, we give four different kinds of discounts. First, we have 25% free if you pay in cash. You just have to settle the payment at the first time and we will give 25% discount of the payment without any requirement. Second, we have 50% discount for the students whose parents are teachers. This kind of discount is specially given to appreciate teachers in Indonesia and their dedication for education. You only need to bring an official letter from UPTD that states your parents are working as teachers. Third, we offer 25% plus-plus discount for them who are siblings or sign up collectively at least 5 students. The last is the discounts for them who get ranking in class. 1st-3rd rank will get Rp150.000 discounts while the 4th-5th rank get Rp100.000 discounts.

To sum up, Ganesha Operation or GO is the best learning guidance institution among others because of its excellent quality of teaching and learning process, which has succesfully help the students to get the achievements, its great facilities, and its cheep tuition fee. If you are looking for the best Bimbel, Ganesha Operation is the right place to go. Final examination,UN and SNMPTN will soon approach. We have to prepare it well. Join us and we will help you to reach the best achievement. Therefore, please visit or contact the nearest GO’s office in your place and sign up now.

 
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Posted by on May 25, 2012 in Meti Rahmawati